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Introduction of

Buddhism and Hinduism



For two and a half thousand years, People have followed a religion based on the teachings of a man they called the Buddha, meaning the Enlightened one. 

The starting point in Buddhism is Mankind and the way in which they suffer not just physical pain but the general feelings of dissatisfaction with life, the craving to achieve of have something more, the fear of change and death. It  seeks to give a person peace of mind and to encourage and develop loving compassion towards all living beings. 

Buddhism is not a dogmatic religion in the sense that it does not require a person to accept fixed beliefs and ideas. It does not concern itself by debating whether or not there is a God. It regards all such beliefs as secondary importance. The main thing is to help people overcome suffering and to achieve a full life. 

The goal of Buddhist religion is enlightenment – which means to be fully awake to the reality of life, to have an understanding of why there is suffering in the world and how it may be overcome. Buddhists claim that in the teaching of the Buddha they find a path which will eventually lead them to achieve this enlightenment for themselves.

 There is a great variety within Buddhism. There are two main Branches of the religion – Theravada or Hinayana Buddhism in the South and Mahayana Buddhism in the North. Nevertheless there is a common basis to all Buddhism expressed in what is called the Triple Jewel (Tri Ratna) – The Buddha, the Dharma (teaching) and The Sangha (community of monks).

Hinayana Buddhism 

Difference of opinions and arguments arising from time to time caused formation of new sects. Finally there arose two sects of thought which are Known as Hinayana and Mahayana. 

The Hinayana adhered more to the concept of four noble truths and eightfold paths which were primarily a philoshophy with rules of conducts and ethics. For them the worship of deities was secondary. The conception of Nirvana was the freedom from the cycle of rebirth. 

Hinayana got it’s name because this doctrine is meant for the individual salvation where reach person has to work out his own destiny. Comparatively few are able by their own efforts to obtain emancipation and achieve Nirvana. Hinayana Buddhism is also called Tharavada Buddhism.  


Mahayana Buddhism 

Early Buddhism stressed that the goal of each individual was to seek freedom from the chain of rebirth and thus from all sufferings and death. The word used to describe this goal was Nirvana. Although there were many different philosophical schools, the religion centered around the institution of the monastery, with its ordained monks and a lay congregation that supported the monastery with its ordained monks and a lay congregation that supported the monastery. The rituals were simple and minimum. Meditation and introspection were encouraged. Each individual sought his own Nirvana. Where as in Mahayana Buddhism the concept of Boddhisatwa, the being who desired highest enlightenment for the welfare of other and his practice of six parmita ( Dana, Sila, Kshanti, Birya, Dhyana, Prajna ) is emphasized. The function of the Boddhisatwa was to postpone his own final leap into Nirvana and to remain in the round as long as a single sentient beings remained undelivered from suffering. This form of Buddhism came to be known as Mahayana (the great way ) or the Buddhistwayana. 

The goal of Mahayana is to attain Buddhahood. The method of attaining was modified. Buddhism changed through Mahayana into an altruistic faith oriented system in which in addition to meditative practices, devotion to a Boddhisatwa was regarded as an equally valid way to reach Buddhahood. The goal was now characterized as the state of Tatatha, emptiness and non duality. 


Vajrayana Buddhism 

Mahayan which is dominated by Mantras is known as mantrayana, Tantrayana or Vajrayana. It is characterized as the path which leads to perfect enlightenment. Vajrayana literally means the adamantine path or vehicle, but its technical meaning is the Sunya Vehicle’ where Sunya is used to a special sense to represent Vajra also means Thunderbolt’ or Diamond’ and Yana means path, way or vehicle. 

 Vajra, connoting diamond, was chosen as the name of the Tantric Buddhist tradition because of the diamond’ s indestructibility as well as of its physical ability to cut through all substances. Vajrayana constitutes the last major stage in the development of Buddhism. 

Vajrayana Buddhism accepts all assumptions of Mahayana, but expands and elaborates them further adding a few of its own. The goal is now characterized as Boddhi Nature (the matrix of Enlightenment ). Every sentient being is a potential Buddha, but he or she is unaware of it because of it because of the dense fog of ignorance that clouds the mind. The fog is said to be discursive thought, which discriminates and polarizes all concepts. Once it is moved Boddhi Nature will emerge like a clear light. This state of reality it achieved by combining ’’ Prajna’’ (knowledge, wisdom or insight ) with “Upaya’’ (means or fitness of action which is the same as karuna or compassion ). Thus, both literally and figuratively, Vajrayana is the belief in the twin principles of insight and compassion and in their “Sahaja” ( Co – emergence ) which leads one to the state of Mahasukha ( greatbliss ).   


Hinduism is a multi disciplinary religion called sanatana Dharma based on writing and experience of age old sages. They assert the view that a permanent, part less, independent self does exists.

There are endless divisions of Hindu systems; briefly, however, they are widely known to consist of six fundamental schools, vaisesika, naiyayika, Samkhya, mimamsaka, Nirgrantha and Lokayat (Carvaka). The first five of these hold views of eternalism (Sasvatavada) and the last hold view of nihilism (Echchedavada).

Hinduism also advocates different ethical systems and meditation systems. By practicing these systems once can take rebirth in Brahma realm.